Depletion Of Fossil Fuels Essays

The Depletion Of Fossil Fuels Essay

Abstract— As the world began to raise concerns on climate change and rapid depletion of fossil fuels, there is a need to hasten the solutions for clean energy generation with renewable sources. Solar energy has the potential as an alternative source of energy as it is renewable, universally accessible and emits very low or zero CO2 gases. Solar photovoltaic (PV) system applications are suitable in Singapore due to its equatorial location, with high solar irradiation of 17MJ/sq.m-day and the ability to generate up to 220kWh of electricity per day in combination with the country’s high rise urbanization. Despite being a small nation, the energy consumption is 37,974.2 GWh and is ranked 53 out of 216 countries which lead to high CO2 emissions. In year 2005, the total CO2 emission in Singapore is 133.85 million metric tons, ranked at 41. The government in Singapore had begun to support the need for a cleaner environment by providing incentives for building of solar PV systems in commercial sectors; one example is the Solar Capability Scheme (SCS), which has a budget of $20 million, and subsidies 30% of the total cost of cap of S$1 million per PV project..
Index Terms— CO2 gas, Solar PV systems, Fossil fuels, Singapore, electrical energy
I. INTRODUCTION

Electrical energy is produced by combusting non-renewable fossil fuels [1] which are not infinite and will eventually be depleted. There are several models developed to calculate the depletion of fossil fuels but there are no definite answers on the actual date for depletion of fossil fuels due to constantly changing trends in consumption and reserves [2]. One of the models used for forecasting the diminishing rate of fossil fuels is the altered Klass equation as shown in Equation (1).

(1)

“FC” is the intake for fossil fuel, “R” is the fossil fuel reserves, “g” the yearly growth rate of ‘FC”, “n” is the number of year it takes to deplete [2]. From Equation (1), the estimated numbers of years for these resources to be depleted are 35 years (oil), 107 (coal) and 37 (gas) [2].

Combustion of fossil fuels produces toxin gases such as CO2 which is one of the main reasons for climate changes. A projected volume of 6,320 million metric tons of CO2 will be produced by year 2035, if the consumption of fossil fuel continues to increase. Figure 1 [3] shows the CO2 gases released which are mainly contributed by burning of fuels and electricity generation.


Figure 1 – Estimated Carbon dioxide emission from 2008 – 2035 [3]

II. SOLAR PV SYSTEM APPLICATIONS IN SINGAPORE

The priority for the research and development for harnessing renewable energies needs to be given to resolve climate change and fossil fuel depletion issues.

There is a potential in solar energy as an alternative source of energy as it is renewable, ecological friendly and accessible across the world. Countries such as Germany had begun to make use of free source of energies such as solar power as a means to...

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Fossil fuel is a term used to describe a group of energy sources that were formed when ancient plants and organisms were subject to intense heat and pressure over millions of years.

FOSSIL FUELS 

Definition

Fossil fuel is a term used to describe a group of energy sources that were formed from ancient plants and organisms during the Carboniferous Period, approximately 360 to 286 million years ago[1]California Energy Commission. “Where fossil fuels come from” Accessed 1.27.2015. http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/chapter08.htmlCalifornia Energy Commission. “Where fossil fuels come from” Accessed 1.27.2015. http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/chapter08.htmlCalifornia Energy Commission. “Where fossil fuels come from” Accessed 1.27.2015. http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/chapter08.htmlCalifornia Energy Commission. “Where fossil fuels come from” Accessed 1.27.2015. http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/chapter08.htmlCalifornia Energy Commission. “Where fossil fuels come from” Accessed 1.27.2015. http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/chapter08.htmlCalifornia Energy Commission. “Where fossil fuels come from” Accessed 1.27.2015. http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/chapter08.htmlCalifornia Energy Commission. “Where fossil fuels come from” Accessed 1.27.2015. http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/chapter08.htmlCalifornia Energy Commission. “Where fossil fuels come from” Accessed 1.27.2015. http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/chapter08.htmlCalifornia Energy Commission. “Where fossil fuels come from” Accessed 1.27.2015. http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/chapter08.htmlCalifornia Energy Commission. “Where fossil fuels come from” Accessed 1.27.2015. http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/chapter08.htmlCalifornia Energy Commission. “Where fossil fuels come from” Accessed 1.27.2015. http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/chapter08.htmlCalifornia Energy Commission. “Where fossil fuels come from” Accessed 1.27.2015. http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/chapter08.htmlCalifornia Energy Commission. “Where fossil fuels come from” Accessed 1.27.2015. http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/chapter08.html, prior to the age of dinosaurs.

At that time, the land was covered with swamps filled with microorganisms, marine organisms, trees, ferns and other large leafy plants. As the organisms and plants died, they sank to the bottom of the swamps and oceans and formed layers of a spongy material called peat. Over millions of years, the peat was covered by sand, clay, and other minerals, which converted the peat into sedimentary rock. Over time, different types of fossil fuels formed, depending on the combination of organic matter present, how long it was buried, and what temperature and pressure conditions existed when they were decomposing.[2]US Department of Energy. “Fossil”  http://energy.gov/science-innovation/energy-sources/fossilUS Department of Energy. “Fossil”  http://energy.gov/science-innovation/energy-sources/fossilUS Department of Energy. “Fossil”  http://energy.gov/science-innovation/energy-sources/fossilUS Department of Energy. “Fossil”  http://energy.gov/science-innovation/energy-sources/fossil

US Department of Energy. “Fossil”  http://energy.gov/science-innovation/energy-sources/fossilUS Department of Energy. “Fossil”  http://energy.gov/science-innovation/energy-sources/fossilUS Department of Energy. “Fossil”  http://energy.gov/science-innovation/energy-sources/fossilUS Department of Energy. “Fossil”  http://energy.gov/science-innovation/energy-sources/fossilUS Department of Energy. “Fossil”  http://energy.gov/science-innovation/energy-sources/fossilUS Department of Energy. “Fossil”  http://energy.gov/science-innovation/energy-sources/fossilUS Department of Energy. “Fossil”  http://energy.gov/science-innovation/energy-sources/fossilUS Department of Energy. “Fossil”  http://energy.gov/science-innovation/energy-sources/fossilUS Department of Energy. “Fossil”  http://energy.gov/science-innovation/energy-sources/fossil

 

There are three major types of fossil fuels:[3]US Oil Properties. “Oil and natural gas: What are they and what makes them different?” June 2012. http://www.usoilproperties.com/natural-gas-news/oil-and-natural-gas-what-are-they-and-what-makes-them-different/ US Oil Properties. “Oil and natural gas: What are they and what makes them different?” June 2012. http://www.usoilproperties.com/natural-gas-news/oil-and-natural-gas-what-are-they-and-what-makes-them-different/ US Oil Properties. “Oil and natural gas: What are they and what makes them different?” June 2012. http://www.usoilproperties.com/natural-gas-news/oil-and-natural-gas-what-are-they-and-what-makes-them-different/ US Oil Properties. “Oil and natural gas: What are they and what makes them different?” June 2012. http://www.usoilproperties.com/natural-gas-news/oil-and-natural-gas-what-are-they-and-what-makes-them-different/ US Oil Properties. “Oil and natural gas: What are they and what makes them different?” June 2012. http://www.usoilproperties.com/natural-gas-news/oil-and-natural-gas-what-are-they-and-what-makes-them-different/ US Oil Properties. “Oil and natural gas: What are they and what makes them different?” June 2012. http://www.usoilproperties.com/natural-gas-news/oil-and-natural-gas-what-are-they-and-what-makes-them-different/ US Oil Properties. “Oil and natural gas: What are they and what makes them different?” June 2012. http://www.usoilproperties.com/natural-gas-news/oil-and-natural-gas-what-are-they-and-what-makes-them-different/ US Oil Properties. “Oil and natural gas: What are they and what makes them different?” June 2012. http://www.usoilproperties.com/natural-gas-news/oil-and-natural-gas-what-are-they-and-what-makes-them-different/ US Oil Properties. “Oil and natural gas: What are they and what makes them different?” June 2012. http://www.usoilproperties.com/natural-gas-news/oil-and-natural-gas-what-are-they-and-what-makes-them-different/ US Oil Properties. “Oil and natural gas: What are they and what makes them different?” June 2012. http://www.usoilproperties.com/natural-gas-news/oil-and-natural-gas-what-are-they-and-what-makes-them-different/ US Oil Properties. “Oil and natural gas: What are they and what makes them different?” June 2012. http://www.usoilproperties.com/natural-gas-news/oil-and-natural-gas-what-are-they-and-what-makes-them-different/ US Oil Properties. “Oil and natural gas: What are they and what makes them different?” June 2012. http://www.usoilproperties.com/natural-gas-news/oil-and-natural-gas-what-are-they-and-what-makes-them-different/ US Oil Properties. “Oil and natural gas: What are they and what makes them different?” June 2012. http://www.usoilproperties.com/natural-gas-news/oil-and-natural-gas-what-are-they-and-what-makes-them-different/  

  • Coal is formed from ferns, plants and trees which hardened due to pressure and heat
  • Oilis formed from smaller organisms, like zooplankton and algae. Intense amounts of pressure caused this complex organic matter to decompose into oil. 
  • Natural Gasundergoes the same process as oil; however the process is longer and subject to higher amounts of heat and pressure, causing further decomposition.

Context

Fossil fuels are the world’s dominant energy source, making up 82% of the global energy supply.[4]International Energy Agency. “Key World Statistics 2014”. 2014International Energy Agency. “Key World Statistics 2014”. 2014International Energy Agency. “Key World Statistics 2014”. 2014International Energy Agency. “Key World Statistics 2014”. 2014International Energy Agency. “Key World Statistics 2014”. 2014International Energy Agency. “Key World Statistics 2014”. 2014International Energy Agency. “Key World Statistics 2014”. 2014International Energy Agency. “Key World Statistics 2014”. 2014International Energy Agency. “Key World Statistics 2014”. 2014International Energy Agency. “Key World Statistics 2014”. 2014International Energy Agency. “Key World Statistics 2014”. 2014International Energy Agency. “Key World Statistics 2014”. 2014International Energy Agency. “Key World Statistics 2014”. 2014 Non-OECD countries hold the majority of proven reserves for all fossil fuels.[5]BP PLC. “BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2014”. June 2014 BP PLC. “BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2014”. June 2014 BP PLC. “BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2014”. June 2014 BP PLC. “BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2014”. June 2014 BP PLC. “BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2014”. June 2014 BP PLC. “BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2014”. June 2014 BP PLC. “BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2014”. June 2014 BP PLC. “BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2014”. June 2014 BP PLC. “BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2014”. June 2014 BP PLC. “BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2014”. June 2014 BP PLC. “BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2014”. June 2014 BP PLC. “BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2014”. June 2014 BP PLC. “BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2014”. June 2014: http://www.bp.com/content/dam/bp-country/de_de/PDFs/brochures/BP-statistical-review-of-world-energy-2014-full-report.pdf These energy sources have powered, and continue to power, the industrialization of nations. They have a variety of applications, from electricity production to transport fuel.  Moreover, fossil fuels are necessary for the production of a variety of common products, such as paints, detergents, polymers (including plastics), cosmetics and some medicines.

Some fossil fuels, such as coal, are an abundant and cheap form of energy. Others, like oil, have a variable cost depending on geographic location. For this reason, geopolitical issues arise due to the geographic allocation of these highly valuable resources.

Fossil fuels are non-renewable resources, as they have taken millions of years to form. Once these resources are used, they will not be replenished. Moreover, fossil fuels are the largest source of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas which contributes to climate change, and their production causes both environmental and human health impacts. These concerns are triggering the world to look at alternate sources of energy that are both less harmful and renewable. Additionally, the gradual depletion of conventional fossil fuel reserves has led companies to develop more challenging reserves.  These unconventional resources usually have higher production costs and a greater risk of environmental impact. 

 

 

References

  1. ^California Energy Commission. “Where fossil fuels come from” Accessed 1.27.2015. http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/chapter08.html
  2. ^US Department of Energy. “Fossil”  http://energy.gov/science-innovation/energy-sources/fossil
  3. ^US Oil Properties. “Oil and natural gas: What are they and what makes them different?” June 2012. http://www.usoilproperties.com/natural-gas-news/oil-and-natural-gas-what-are-they-and-what-makes-them-different/ 
  4. ^International Energy Agency. “Key World Statistics 2014”. 2014
  5. ^BP PLC. “BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2014”. June 2014 

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